Database management is a system of managing the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users, editing it as needed, monitoring data changes, and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a component of the informational infrastructure of a company that assists in decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.
A database consists of a set of tables that are organized in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most well-known database type currently. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require the changing of several databases.
Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues like the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level determines how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.